Parts: Whole plant, but primarily fresh aerial parts: the
leaves, stems and flowers. May be purchased in tablet, made into a tea,
eaten in salads.
Tincture formula: Ethanol extract is 1:4 weight to volume of fresh aerial parts, blended and separated.
Uses: Diuretic, may improve immune system resistance to infections. Folk uses include blood purifier, stomachaches, liver and biliary ailments (similar to uses of uva ursi).
Native American Medicinal Uses: Leaves steamed and used as a poultice or compress to sores, wounds, bruises (Aleut, Cherokee). Mohegans ate leaves to ease stomach problems. According to Moerman, Squaxin ate leaves to treat tuberculosis.
Food Uses: Leaves eaten raw, boiled or fried. Also, stuffed into breads and pies. Used as a lemony spice with vegetables. Various tribes ate the leaves to include: alphabetically: Bella Coola, Chehalis, Cherokess, Delaware, Hanaksiala, Hesquiat, Iroquois, Miwok, Okanagon-Colville, Saanich, Thompson. The wide spread distribution of the plant is evident by the number of First People who used it.
Chemistry: Oxalic acid, tannins, flavonoids, anthracene derivatives including physcion, emodin, aloe emodin, rhein, aloe emodin acetate, chryosphanol.