Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesis (Mirbel) Franco, Family: Pinaceae.  Predominant evergreen of the Pacific Northwest.   Also see Cedar.

NATIVE AMERICAN USES: One of our most valuable trees.  Native Americans used it for fuel, medicine, religious ceremony, food, fiber, constructing fishing lures, to make bows, harpoon shafts, spear shafts, rakes for shell fishing.  Pitch was used for sealing and binding

FOOD: Pitch used to make chewing gum.   Leaves used as a coffee substitute, to make tea, needles used to flavor meats when roasted.  Sap was used as a mild sweetener.    Young end sprouts used to make tea or as a chew.  Also, new sprouting saplings used same way.

Medicine: Pitch used to treat coughs from colds, dampness, bronchitis.   Pitch also used to treat skin problems, seal wounds and cuts.

Young green bark used to treat stomach problems, menstrual problems.  Young plant end shoots chewed as a breath freshener and tooth cleanser.  Young tips used as foot  deodorant in moccasins and to combat athlete's fungus.  Shoots and needles used in fires and sweat lodge ritual as a cleansing warrior plant.  Young twigs in decoction considered a tonic.

Steamed branches and needles claimed to be antirheumatic.   Ash also were applied to arthritic joints.

Shoots, needles and young sprouts in infusion to treat colds.  Also same in infusion for treating kidneys and bladder problems.

Bark taken for treating menstrual problems.  Infusion of burned and powdered ash of bark for diarrhea, dysentery, poisoning.  Ash blended into grease for external applications, a salve for wounds.